Mergers and Acquisition – A Case Examine and Evaluation of HP-Compaq Merger


Temporary Description

The next is a quick description of the 2 firms:


All of it started within the yr 1938 when two electrical engineering graduates from Stanford College referred to as William Hewlett and David Packard began their enterprise in a storage in Palo Alto. In a yr’s time, the partnership referred to as Hewlett-Packard was made and by the yr 1947, HP was included. The corporate has been prospering ever since as its income grew from 5 and half million in 1951 to about three billion in 1981. The tempo of development knew no bounds as HP’s internet income went as much as 42 billion in 1997. Beginning with manufacturing audio oscillators, the corporate made its first pc within the yr 1966 and it was by 1972 that it launched the idea of private computing by a calculator first which was additional superior into a private pc within the yr 1980. The corporate can be identified for the laser-printer which it launched within the yr 1985.


The corporate is best often called Compaq Laptop Company. This was firm that began itself as a private pc firm within the yr 1982. It had the allure of being referred to as the most important producers of private computing units worldwide. The corporate was fashioned by two senior managers at Texas Devices. The title of the corporate had come from-“Compatibility and Quality”. The corporate launched its first pc within the yr 1983 after at a value of 2995 . Regardless of being moveable, the issue with the pc was that it appeared to be a suitcase. Nonetheless, there have been enormous business advantages from the pc because it bought greater than 53,000 items within the first yr with a income technology of 111 million .

Causes for the Merger

A quite simple query that arises right here is that, if HP was progressing at such an amazing tempo, what was the rationale that the corporate needed to merge with Compaq? Carly Fiorina, who grew to become the CEO of HP within the yr 1999, had a key function to play within the merger that happened in 2001. She was the primary girl to have taken over as CEO of such a giant firm and the primary outsider too. She labored very effectively as she travelled greater than 250,000 miles within the first yr as a CEO. Her primary goal was to modernize the tradition of operation of HP. She laid nice emphasis on the worthwhile sides of the enterprise. This reveals that she was very extravagant in her strategy as a CEO. Regardless of the expansion available in the market worth of HP’s share from 54.43 to 74.48 , the corporate was nonetheless inefficient. This was as a result of it couldn’t meet the targets on account of a failure of each firm and business. HP was compelled to chop down on jobs and likewise be eluded from the privilege of getting Value Water Home Cooper’s to deal with its audit. So, even the job of Fiorina was beneath risk. This meant that enchancment within the inner methods of the corporate was not going to be ample for the corporate’s success. In the end, the corporate needed to actually plan out one thing totally different. So, it was determined that the corporate can be buying Compaq in a inventory transaction whose internet value was 25 billion . Initially, this merger was not deliberate. It began with a telephonic dialog between CEO HP, Fiorina and Chairman and CEO Compaq, Capellas. The thought behind the dialog was to debate on a licensing settlement however it continued as a dialogue on aggressive technique and at last a merger. It took two months for additional research and by September, 2001, the boards of the 2 firms authorized of the merger. Regardless of the choice coming from the CEO of HP, the merger was strongly opposed within the firm. The 2 CEOs believed that the one strategy to battle the rising competitors by way of costs was to have a merger. However the buyers and the opposite stakeholders thought that the corporate would by no means have the ability to have the loyalty of the Compaq clients, if merchandise are bought with an HP brand on it. Aside from this, there have been questions on the synchronization of the group’s members with one another. This was due to the change within the group tradition as properly. Though these have been presupposed to critical issues with respect to the merger, the CEO of HP, Fiorina justified the identical with the truth that the merger would take away one critical competitor within the over-supplied PC market of these days. She stated that the market share of the corporate is sure to extend with the merger and likewise the working unit would double. (Hoopes, 2001)

Benefits of the Merger

Though it appeared to be advantageous to only a few individuals to start with, it was the robust willpower of Fiorina that she was in a position to stand by her determination. Wall Avenue and all her buyers had gone towards the corporate lampooning her concepts with the saying that she has made 1+1=1.5 by her extravagant methods of enlargement. Fiorina had put it this fashion that after the corporate’s merger, not solely would it not have a bigger share available in the market but in addition the items of manufacturing would double. This is able to imply that the corporate would develop tremendously in quantity. Her dream of competing with the giants within the discipline, IBM would additionally come true. She was of the view that a lot of the redundancy within the two firms would lower as the inner prices on promotion, advertising and marketing and delivery would come down with the merger. This is able to produce the slightest hurt to the gathering of income. She used the concepts of aggressive positioning to justify her plans of the merger. She stated that the merger is predicated on the ideologies of consolidation and never on diversification. She may additionally defend allegations towards the change within the HP was. She was of the view that the HP has all the time inspired modifications as it’s about innovating and taking daring steps. She stated that the corporate requires being according to creativity, enchancment and modification. This merger had the potential of offering precisely the identical. (Mergers and Acquisitions, 2010)

Benefits to the Shareholders

The next are the methods during which the corporate may be advantageous to its shareholders:

Distinctive Alternative: The place of the enterprise is sure to higher with the merger. The rationale for a similar was that now the worth creation can be recent, management qualities would enhance, capabilities would enhance and so would the gross sales and likewise the corporate’s strategic differentiation can be higher than the present opponents. Aside from this, one also can entry the capabilities of Compaq immediately therefore decreasing the associated fee construction in turning into the most important within the business. Lastly, one may additionally see a chance in reinvesting.

Stronger Firm: The profitability is sure to extend within the enterprise, entry and providers sectors in excessive levels. The corporate also can see a greater alternative in its analysis and improvement. The monetary situations of the corporate with respect to its EBIT and internet money are additionally on the incremental facet.

Compelling Economics: The anticipated accumulation in IIP features can be 13% within the first monetary yr. The corporate may additionally conduct a greater segmentation of the market to forecast its revenues technology. This is able to go to as a lot as 2 and a half billion of annual synergy.

Skill to Execute: As there can be integration within the planning procedures of the corporate, the probabilities of worth creation would even be enormous. Together with that the expertise of main a diversified worker construction would even be there. (HP to purchase Compaq, 2001)

Opposition to the Merger

Actually, it was solely CEO Fiorina who was in favor of going with the merger. It is a sensible utility of Company downside that arises due to change in monetary methods of the corporate homeowners and the administration. Fiorina was sure to lose her job if the merger did not take impact. The rationale was that HP was not in a position to meet the demand targets beneath her management. However the homeowners have been towards the merger as a result of following beliefs of the homeowners:

The brand new portfolio can be much less preferable: The place of the corporate as a bigger provider of PCs will surely enhance the quantity of danger and contain quite a lot of funding as properly. One other vital motive on this context is that HP’s prime curiosity in Imaging and Printing wouldn’t exist anymore in consequence diluting the curiosity of the stockholders. Actually the corporate homeowners additionally really feel that there can be a decrease margin and ROI (return on funding).

Strategic Issues would stay Unsolved: The market place in high-end servers and providers would nonetheless stay despite the merger. The value of the PCS wouldn’t come all the way down to be reasonably priced by all. The requisite change in materials for imaging and printing additionally wouldn’t exist. This merger would haven’t any impact on the low finish servers as Dell can be there within the lead and high-end servers both the place IBM and Solar would have the lead. The corporate would even be eluded from some great benefits of outsourcing due to the excess labor it could have. So, the standard is just not assured to enhance. Lastly, the merger wouldn’t equal IBM beneath any situation as thought by Fiorina.

Large Built-in Dangers: There have been no examples of success with such enormous mergers. Typically when the market does not assist such mergers, do not do properly as is the case right here. When HP couldn’t handle its group correctly, integration would solely add on to the difficulties. It might be much more troublesome beneath the situations due to the present competitions between HP and Compaq. Being vulnerable to such dangerous situations, the corporate would additionally need to range its prices inflicting better bother for the proprietor. The largest issue of all is that to combine the tradition current within the two firms can be a really troublesome job.

Monetary Influence: That is largely as a result of the market reactions are adverse. However, the place of Compaq was completely totally different from HP. As the corporate would have a better contribution to the income and HP being diluted on the identical time, the issues are sure to develop. This is able to imply that drawing cash from the fairness market would even be troublesome for HP. Actually this may not appear to be a really worthwhile merger for Compaq as properly sooner or later.

The fundamental downside that the homeowners of the corporate had with this merger was that it could hamper the core values of HP. They felt that it’s higher to protect wealth reasonably than to danger it with extravagant danger taking. This excessive danger profile of Fiorina was somewhat unacceptable for the homeowners of the corporate in mild of its prospects.

So, so far as this merger between HP and Compaq is anxious, on facet there was this robust willpower of the CEO, Fiorina and on the opposite facet was the robust opposition from the corporate homeowners. This opposition continued from the market together with all of the buyers of the corporate. So, this sensible Company downside was very well-known contemplating the truth that it contained two of probably the most highly effective firms on this planet. There have been a variety of choices like Change Administration, Financial sensible Administration, and Organizational Administration which may very well be thought-about to investigate the difficulty. However this case examine may be solved finest by a method sensible evaluation. (HP-Compaq merger faces stiff opposition from shareholders inventory costs fall once more, 2001)

Strategic Evaluation of the Case

Optimistic Points

A CEO will all the time contemplate such a merger to be an event to take a aggressive benefit over its rivals like IBM as on this case and likewise be of some curiosity to the shareholders as properly. The next are the methods which might be associated to this merger between HP and Compaq:

* Having a watch over shareholders’ worth: If one sees this merger from the eyes of Fiorina, it could be sure that the shareholders have loads to realize from it. The rationale for a similar is the increment within the management of the market. So, even of the situations weren’t appropriate from the monetary perspective, this fact will surely make quite a lot of income for the corporate sooner or later.

* Growth of Markets: Two organizations get entangled in mergers as they wish to increase their market each on the home and the worldwide stage. Integration with a home firm does not want a lot effort however when an organization merges internationally as on this case, a difficult process is on head. A radical scenario scanning is important earlier than placing your ft in Worldwide enviornment. Right here, the competitor for HP was Compaq to a big diploma, so this merger actually required quite a lot of considering. Organizations merge with the worldwide firms as a way to arrange their manufacturers first and let individuals find out about what they’re able to and likewise what they eye sooner or later. That is the rationale that after this merger the merchandise of Compaq would even have the brand of HP. As soon as the market is well-known, then HP wouldn’t need to undergo the branding created by Compaq. They’d have the ability to draw all the purchasers of Compaq as properly.

* Propagated Efficiencies: Any firm by buying one other or by merging makes an try so as to add to its efficiencies by rising the operations and likewise having management over it to the utmost extent. We will see that HP would now have an elevated set of staff. The one issue is that they must be managed correctly as they’re of various organizational cultures. (Advantages of Mergers:, 2010)

* Allowances to make use of extra assets: An improvised group of financial assets, mental capital and uncooked supplies provides a aggressive benefit to the businesses. When such firms merge, most of the intellects come collectively and work in direction of a standard mission to excel with monetary income to the corporate. Right here, one cannot deny the truth that even the highest brains of Compaq can be collaborating in forming the methods of the corporate sooner or later.

* Administration of dangers: If we significantly take an instance of this case, HP and Compaq getting into into this merger can lower the chance stage they’d have diversified enterprise alternatives. The choices for making selection of the provision chain additionally enhance. Now though HP is a pioneer in inkjet orienting, it could not have to make use of the Product based mostly Facility format which is dearer. It could actually handle the chance of taking course of based mostly facility format and make issues cheaper. Manufacturing and Processing can now be achieved in numerous nations in line with the associated fee viability as the most important difficulty.

* Itemizing potential: Though Wall Avenue and all of the buyers of the corporate are towards the merger, when IPOs are supplied, a improvement will certainly be there due to the flourishing earnings and turnover worth which HP can be making with this merger.

* Crucial political laws: When organizations take a leap into different nations, they should contemplate the totally different laws in that nation which administer the insurance policies of the place. As HP is already a pioneer in all of the nations that Compaq used to do its enterprise, this could not be of a lot issue for the corporate. The corporate would solely have to make sure minor laws with the political events of some nations the place Compaq was flourishing greater than HP.

* Higher Alternatives: When firms merge with one other firm, later they’ll put up on the market as per because the wants of the corporate. This may be achieved partially. If HP feels that it could not want a lot of warehouse area it may promote the identical at elevated income. It depends upon whether or not the corporate would now be regarded a s a make to inventory or a make to order firm.

* Further merchandise, providers, and services: Providers get copyrights which reinforces the extent of commerce. Extra Warehouse providers and distribution channels supply enterprise values. Right here HP can use all such values built-in with Compaq in order to extend its prospects. (Berry, 2010)

Detrimental Points

There are a variety of mergers and acquisitions that fail earlier than they really begin to perform. Within the essential section of implementation itself, the businesses come to know that it could not be useful in the event that they proceed as a merger. This could happen on this merger between HP and Compaq as a result of following causes.

Conversations should not applied: Due to in contrast to cultures, ambitions and danger profiles; most of the offers are cancelled. As per because the reactions of the homeowners of HP, this appears to be extraordinarily possible. So, motivation amongst the staff is an especially vital consideration on this case. This requires an additional effort by the CEO, Fiorina. This might additionally assist her preserve her place within the firm.

Authorized Contemplations: Anti-competitive offers are sometimes restricted by the principles presiding over the competitors guidelines in a rustic. This results in out of order functioning of 1 firm they usually attempt to separate from one another. A number of pointless advertising and marketing failures get connected to those situations. If this occurs on this case, then all that cash which went in publicizing the enterprise would go to be a waste. Furthermore, much more can be required to re-promote as a single entity. Even the packaging the place your complete stock from Compaq had the brand of HP must be re-done, thus hampering the finance even additional. (Broc Romanek, 2002)

Compatibility issues: Each firm runs on totally different platforms and concepts. Compatibility issues typically happen due to synchronization points. In IT firms similar to HP and Compaq, many issues can happen as a result of each the businesses have labored on totally different methods prior to now. Now, it may not appear vital for the HP administration to make modifications as per as these from Compaq. Thus such issues have turn into of biggest concern as of late.

Fiscal catastrophes: Each the businesses after signing an settlement hope to have some return on the cash they’ve put in to make this merger occur and likewise want profitability and turnovers. If on account of any motive, they aren’t in a position to attain that place, then they develop a abhorrence sense in direction of one another and likewise begin charging one another for the failure.

Human Useful resource Variations: Issues because of cultural dissimilarities, hospitality and hostility points, and likewise different conduct associated points can take aside the origin of the merger.

Lack of Dedication: When organizations contain, they’ve plans of their minds, they’ve a imaginative and prescient set; however due to quite a lot of issues as talked about above, improvement of the mixed firm to perform its mission is delayed. Merged firms set the purpose and when the purpose is just not achieved on account of some faults of any of the 2; then each of them develop a sure diploma of hatred for one another. Additionally clashes can happen due to bias reactions. (William, 2008)

Danger administration failure: Firms which might be concerned in mergers and acquisitions, turn into over assured that they will make a revenue out of this determination. This may be seen as with Fiorina. Actually she will battle the entire world for that. When their self-confidence seems into over-confidence then they fail. Ample danger administration strategies needs to be adopted which might deal with the results if the choice takes a downturn. These danger insurance policies ought to rule fiscal, productions, advertising and marketing, manufacturing, and stock and HR dangers related to the merger.

Strategic Sharing

Advertising and marketing

Hp and Compaq would now have frequent channels so far as their shopping for is anxious. So, the advantages on this concern is that even for these supplies which have been initially of excessive price for HP would now be obtainable at a less expensive value. The top customers are additionally more likely to enhance. Now, the corporate can re body its aggressive technique the place the best concern may be given to all time rivals IBM. Some great benefits of this merger within the discipline of promoting may be seen within the case of shared branding, gross sales and repair. Even the distribution process is more likely to be enhanced with Compaq taking part in its half. Now, the corporate can look ahead to cross promoting, subsidization and likewise a decreased price.


The foremost benefit on this space is that within the location of uncooked materials. Even the processing model can be identical making the services and products synchronized with the concepts and likewise in making an honest operational technique. Because the philosophical and mechanical management would even be in frequent, the operational technique would now be to turn into the highest most available in the market. On this respect, the 2 firms would now have co-production, design and likewise location of employees. So, the operational technique of HP would now be to make use of the method based mostly facility format and performance with the talked about shared values.


The technical technique of the corporate will also be designed in frequent now. There’s a drawback from the angle of the differentiation that HP had within the discipline of inkjet printers however the benefits are additionally plentiful. With a standard product and course of expertise, the technological technique of the merged firm would promote extremely economical functioning. This may be achieved by means of a standard analysis and improvement and designing group.

Shopping for

The shopping for technique of the corporate would additionally comply with a standard mechanism. Right here, the uncooked supplies, equipment, and energy can be frequent therefore reducing the associated fee as soon as once more. This may be achieved by means of a centralized mechanism with a lead purchaser holding frequent insurance policies in thoughts. Now Hp must suppose with an identical angle for each inkjet printers in addition to private computer systems. It is because the parameters for manufacturing would additionally run on equal grounds.


That is crucial a part of the methods that might be made after the merger. The businesses would have frequent shareholders for offering the requisite infrastructure. The capital supply, administration model, and laws would even be in frequent. So, the infrastructure methods must take this stuff into consideration. This may be achieved by having a standard accounting system. HP does have an choice to have a separate accounting system for the merchandise that it manufactures however that might solely arouse an inner competitors. So, the infrastructural advantages may be made by means of a standard accounting, authorized and human useful resource system. This is able to be sure that the funding relations of the corporate would enhance. Not one of the Compaq buyers would hesitate in investing if HP follows a standard technique.

HP would now have to make sure one other incontrovertible fact that with this merger they’d have the ability to show opponents to the current goal and people of opponents like IBM as properly. Even the operations and the output market must be above what exists at current. The corporate wants to make sure that the company technique that it makes use of is environment friendly sufficient to assist such a future. The diploma of diversification must be managed totally as properly. It is because; the merchandise from the 2 firms have carried out exceptionally properly prior to now. So, probably the most optimum diploma of diversification is required beneath the context in order that the corporate is ready to meet the calls for of the purchasers. This has been challenged by the homeowners of HP however must be carried by the CEO Fiorina. (Bhattacharya, 2010)