Mergers and Acquisition – A Case Examine and Evaluation of HP-Compaq Merger


Temporary Description

The next is a quick description of the 2 firms:


All of it started within the 12 months 1938 when two electrical engineering graduates from Stanford College referred to as William Hewlett and David Packard began their enterprise in a storage in Palo Alto. In a 12 months’s time, the partnership referred to as Hewlett-Packard was made and by the 12 months 1947, HP was included. The corporate has been prospering ever since as its income grew from 5 and half million in 1951 to about three billion in 1981. The tempo of progress knew no bounds as HP’s web income went as much as 42 billion in 1997. Beginning with manufacturing audio oscillators, the corporate made its first pc within the 12 months 1966 and it was by 1972 that it launched the idea of private computing by a calculator first which was additional superior into a private pc within the 12 months 1980. The corporate can be recognized for the laser-printer which it launched within the 12 months 1985.


The corporate is best often known as Compaq Pc Company. This was firm that began itself as a private pc firm within the 12 months 1982. It had the attraction of being referred to as the most important producers of private computing gadgets worldwide. The corporate was fashioned by two senior managers at Texas Devices. The title of the corporate had come from-“Compatibility and Quality”. The corporate launched its first pc within the 12 months 1983 after at a value of 2995 . Despite being moveable, the issue with the pc was that it gave the impression to be a suitcase. However, there have been enormous business advantages from the pc because it bought greater than 53,000 items within the first 12 months with a income technology of 111 million .

Causes for the Merger

A quite simple query that arises right here is that, if HP was progressing at such an amazing tempo, what was the rationale that the corporate needed to merge with Compaq? Carly Fiorina, who turned the CEO of HP within the 12 months 1999, had a key position to play within the merger that occurred in 2001. She was the primary lady to have taken over as CEO of such a giant firm and the primary outsider too. She labored very effectively as she travelled greater than 250,000 miles within the first 12 months as a CEO. Her primary intention was to modernize the tradition of operation of HP. She laid nice emphasis on the worthwhile sides of the enterprise. This reveals that she was very extravagant in her strategy as a CEO. Despite the expansion available in the market worth of HP’s share from 54.43 to 74.48 , the corporate was nonetheless inefficient. This was as a result of it couldn’t meet the targets because of a failure of each firm and business. HP was compelled to chop down on jobs and in addition be eluded from the privilege of getting Worth Water Home Cooper’s to deal with its audit. So, even the job of Fiorina was underneath menace. This meant that enchancment within the inside methods of the corporate was not going to be adequate for the corporate’s success. In the end, the corporate needed to definitely plan out one thing completely different. So, it was determined that the corporate could be buying Compaq in a inventory transaction whose web value was 25 billion . Initially, this merger was not deliberate. It began with a telephonic dialog between CEO HP, Fiorina and Chairman and CEO Compaq, Capellas. The thought behind the dialog was to debate on a licensing settlement but it surely continued as a dialogue on aggressive technique and eventually a merger. It took two months for additional research and by September, 2001, the boards of the 2 firms accepted of the merger. Despite the choice coming from the CEO of HP, the merger was strongly opposed within the firm. The 2 CEOs believed that the one technique to battle the rising competitors when it comes to costs was to have a merger. However the traders and the opposite stakeholders thought that the corporate would by no means have the ability to have the loyalty of the Compaq prospects, if merchandise are bought with an HP emblem on it. Apart from this, there have been questions on the synchronization of the group’s members with one another. This was due to the change within the group tradition as nicely. Regardless that these have been imagined to severe issues with respect to the merger, the CEO of HP, Fiorina justified the identical with the truth that the merger would take away one severe competitor within the over-supplied PC market of these days. She mentioned that the market share of the corporate is certain to extend with the merger and in addition the working unit would double. (Hoopes, 2001)

Benefits of the Merger

Regardless that it gave the impression to be advantageous to only a few individuals to start with, it was the robust dedication of Fiorina that she was capable of stand by her choice. Wall Road and all her traders had gone towards the corporate lampooning her concepts with the saying that she has made 1+1=1.5 by her extravagant methods of enlargement. Fiorina had put it this fashion that after the corporate’s merger, not solely would it not have a bigger share available in the market but in addition the items of manufacturing would double. This may imply that the corporate would develop tremendously in quantity. Her dream of competing with the giants within the discipline, IBM would additionally come true. She was of the view that a lot of the redundancy within the two firms would lower as the interior prices on promotion, advertising and transport would come down with the merger. This may produce the slightest hurt to the gathering of income. She used the concepts of aggressive positioning to justify her plans of the merger. She mentioned that the merger relies on the ideologies of consolidation and never on diversification. She may additionally defend allegations towards the change within the HP was. She was of the view that the HP has all the time inspired adjustments as it’s about innovating and taking daring steps. She mentioned that the corporate requires being in keeping with creativity, enchancment and modification. This merger had the aptitude of offering precisely the identical. (Mergers and Acquisitions, 2010)

Benefits to the Shareholders

The next are the methods during which the corporate may be advantageous to its shareholders:

Distinctive Alternative: The place of the enterprise is certain to higher with the merger. The explanation for a similar was that now the worth creation could be contemporary, management qualities would enhance, capabilities would enhance and so would the gross sales and in addition the corporate’s strategic differentiation could be higher than the present rivals. Apart from this, one may entry the capabilities of Compaq instantly therefore decreasing the price construction in changing into the most important within the business. Lastly, one may additionally see a possibility in reinvesting.

Stronger Firm: The profitability is certain to extend within the enterprise, entry and providers sectors in excessive levels. The corporate may see a greater alternative in its analysis and growth. The monetary circumstances of the corporate with respect to its EBIT and web money are additionally on the incremental aspect.

Compelling Economics: The anticipated accumulation in IIP good points could be 13% within the first monetary 12 months. The corporate may additionally conduct a greater segmentation of the market to forecast its revenues technology. This may go to as a lot as 2 and a half billion of annual synergy.

Capability to Execute: As there could be integration within the planning procedures of the corporate, the probabilities of worth creation would even be enormous. Together with that the expertise of main a diversified worker construction would even be there. (HP to purchase Compaq, 2001)

Opposition to the Merger

In truth, it was solely CEO Fiorina who was in favor of going with the merger. This can be a sensible software of Company drawback that arises due to change in monetary methods of the corporate homeowners and the administration. Fiorina was sure to lose her job if the merger did not take impact. The explanation was that HP was not capable of meet the demand targets underneath her management. However the homeowners have been towards the merger because of the following beliefs of the homeowners:

The brand new portfolio could be much less preferable: The place of the corporate as a bigger provider of PCs will surely improve the quantity of threat and contain a variety of funding as nicely. One other vital purpose on this context is that HP’s prime curiosity in Imaging and Printing wouldn’t exist anymore because of this diluting the curiosity of the stockholders. In truth the corporate homeowners additionally really feel that there could be a decrease margin and ROI (return on funding).

Strategic Issues would stay Unsolved: The market place in high-end servers and providers would nonetheless stay regardless of the merger. The value of the PCS wouldn’t come right down to be inexpensive by all. The requisite change in materials for imaging and printing additionally wouldn’t exist. This merger would don’t have any impact on the low finish servers as Dell could be there within the lead and high-end servers both the place IBM and Solar would have the lead. The corporate would even be eluded from the benefits of outsourcing due to the excess labor it might have. So, the standard isn’t assured to enhance. Lastly, the merger wouldn’t equal IBM underneath any situation as thought by Fiorina.

Big Built-in Dangers: There have been no examples of success with such enormous mergers. Usually when the market would not assist such mergers, do not do nicely as is the case right here. When HP couldn’t handle its group correctly, integration would solely add on to the difficulties. It might be much more troublesome underneath the circumstances due to the present competitions between HP and Compaq. Being vulnerable to such dangerous circumstances, the corporate would additionally must fluctuate its prices inflicting larger bother for the proprietor. The most important issue of all is that to combine the tradition present within the two firms could be a really troublesome job.

Monetary Affect: That is principally as a result of the market reactions are adverse. However, the place of Compaq was completely completely different from HP. As the corporate would have a larger contribution to the income and HP being diluted on the identical time, the issues are certain to develop. This may imply that drawing cash from the fairness market would even be troublesome for HP. In truth this won’t appear to be a really worthwhile merger for Compaq as nicely sooner or later.

The essential drawback that the homeowners of the corporate had with this merger was that it might hamper the core values of HP. They felt that it’s higher to protect wealth quite than to threat it with extravagant threat taking. This excessive threat profile of Fiorina was just a little unacceptable for the homeowners of the corporate in gentle of its prospects.

So, so far as this merger between HP and Compaq is anxious, on aspect there was this robust dedication of the CEO, Fiorina and on the opposite aspect was the robust opposition from the corporate homeowners. This opposition continued from the market together with all of the traders of the corporate. So, this sensible Company drawback was very well-known contemplating the truth that it contained two of essentially the most highly effective firms on the earth. There have been various choices like Change Administration, Financial sensible Administration, and Organizational Administration which may very well be thought of to investigate the problem. However this case examine may be solved finest by a technique sensible evaluation. (HP-Compaq merger faces stiff opposition from shareholders inventory costs fall once more, 2001)

Strategic Evaluation of the Case

Constructive Features

A CEO will all the time think about such a merger to be an event to take a aggressive benefit over its rivals like IBM as on this case and in addition be of some curiosity to the shareholders as nicely. The next are the methods which are associated to this merger between HP and Compaq:

* Having an eye fixed over shareholders’ worth: If one sees this merger from the eyes of Fiorina, it might make sure that the shareholders have loads to realize from it. The explanation for a similar is the increment within the management of the market. So, even of the circumstances weren’t appropriate from the monetary perspective, this fact will surely make a variety of income for the corporate sooner or later.

* Growth of Markets: Two organizations become involved in mergers as they need to broaden their market each on the home and the worldwide degree. Integration with a home firm would not want a lot effort however when an organization merges internationally as on this case, a difficult process is on head. An intensive state of affairs scanning is important earlier than placing your ft in Worldwide area. Right here, the competitor for HP was Compaq to a big diploma, so this merger definitely required a variety of pondering. Organizations merge with the worldwide firms with the intention to arrange their manufacturers first and let individuals find out about what they’re able to and in addition what they eye sooner or later. That is the rationale that after this merger the merchandise of Compaq would even have the brand of HP. As soon as the market is well-known, then HP wouldn’t must undergo the branding created by Compaq. They might have the ability to draw all the shoppers of Compaq as nicely.

* Propagated Efficiencies: Any firm by buying one other or by merging makes an try so as to add to its efficiencies by rising the operations and in addition having management over it to the utmost extent. We are able to see that HP would now have an elevated set of staff. The one issue is that they must be managed correctly as they’re of various organizational cultures. (Advantages of Mergers:, 2010)

* Allowances to make use of extra sources: An improvised group of financial sources, mental capital and uncooked supplies presents a aggressive benefit to the businesses. When such firms merge, most of the intellects come collectively and work in direction of a typical mission to excel with monetary income to the corporate. Right here, one cannot deny the truth that even the highest brains of Compaq could be collaborating in forming the methods of the corporate sooner or later.

* Administration of dangers: If we significantly take an instance of this case, HP and Compaq coming into into this merger can lower the danger degree they’d have diversified enterprise alternatives. The choices for making selection of the provision chain additionally improve. Now regardless that HP is a pioneer in inkjet orienting, it might not have to make use of the Product primarily based Facility format which is dearer. It may well handle the danger of taking course of primarily based facility format and make issues cheaper. Manufacturing and Processing can now be carried out in varied nations in accordance with the price viability as the foremost concern.

* Itemizing potential: Regardless that Wall Road and all of the traders of the corporate are towards the merger, when IPOs are provided, a growth will certainly be there due to the flourishing earnings and turnover worth which HP could be making with this merger.

* Needed political laws: When organizations take a leap into different nations, they should think about the completely different laws in that nation which administer the insurance policies of the place. As HP is already a pioneer in all of the international locations that Compaq used to do its enterprise, this could not be of a lot issue for the corporate. The corporate would solely have to make sure minor laws with the political events of some international locations the place Compaq was flourishing greater than HP.

* Higher Alternatives: When firms merge with one other firm, later they will put up on the market as per because the wants of the corporate. This is also carried out partially. If HP feels that it might not want a lot of warehouse house it might promote the identical at elevated income. It is determined by whether or not the corporate would now be regarded a s a make to inventory or a make to order firm.

* Further merchandise, providers, and amenities: Providers get copyrights which boosts the extent of commerce. Further Warehouse providers and distribution channels provide enterprise values. Right here HP can use all such values built-in with Compaq in order to extend its prospects. (Berry, 2010)

Damaging Features

There are a selection of mergers and acquisitions that fail earlier than they really begin to perform. Within the essential part of implementation itself, the businesses come to know that it might not be helpful in the event that they proceed as a merger. This will happen on this merger between HP and Compaq because of the following causes.

Conversations should not applied: Due to in contrast to cultures, ambitions and threat profiles; most of the offers are cancelled. As per because the reactions of the homeowners of HP, this appears to be extraordinarily doubtless. So, motivation amongst the staff is an especially vital consideration on this case. This requires an additional effort by the CEO, Fiorina. This might additionally assist her keep her place within the firm.

Authorized Contemplations: Anti-competitive offers are sometimes restricted by the principles presiding over the competitors guidelines in a rustic. This results in out of order functioning of 1 firm they usually attempt to separate from one another. Numerous pointless advertising failures get hooked up to those circumstances. If this occurs on this case, then all that cash which went in publicizing the enterprise would go to be a waste. Furthermore, much more could be required to re-promote as a single entity. Even the packaging the place your complete stock from Compaq had the brand of HP must be re-done, thus hampering the finance even additional. (Broc Romanek, 2002)

Compatibility issues: Each firm runs on completely different platforms and concepts. Compatibility issues typically happen due to synchronization points. In IT firms comparable to HP and Compaq, many issues can happen as a result of each the businesses have labored on completely different methods previously. Now, it won’t appear essential for the HP administration to make adjustments as per as these from Compaq. Thus such issues have grow to be of biggest concern nowadays.

Fiscal catastrophes: Each the businesses after signing an settlement hope to have some return on the cash they’ve put in to make this merger occur and in addition want profitability and turnovers. If because of any purpose, they aren’t capable of attain that place, then they develop a abhorrence sense in direction of one another and in addition begin charging one another for the failure.

Human Useful resource Variations: Issues on account of cultural dissimilarities, hospitality and hostility points, and in addition different conduct associated points can take aside the origin of the merger.

Lack of Willpower: When organizations contain, they’ve plans of their minds, they’ve a imaginative and prescient set; however due to quite a lot of issues as talked about above, growth of the mixed firm to perform its mission is delayed. Merged firms set the objective and when the objective isn’t completed because of some faults of any of the 2; then each of them develop a sure diploma of hatred for one another. Additionally clashes can happen due to bias reactions. (William, 2008)

Danger administration failure: Firms which are concerned in mergers and acquisitions, grow to be over assured that they will make a revenue out of this choice. This may be seen as with Fiorina. In truth she will battle the entire world for that. When their self-confidence seems into over-confidence then they fail. Sufficient threat administration strategies needs to be adopted which might deal with the results if the choice takes a downturn. These threat insurance policies ought to rule fiscal, productions, advertising, manufacturing, and stock and HR dangers related to the merger.

Strategic Sharing


Hp and Compaq would now have widespread channels so far as their shopping for is anxious. So, the advantages on this concern is that even for these supplies which have been initially of excessive price for HP would now be out there at a less expensive value. The top customers are additionally more likely to improve. Now, the corporate can re body its aggressive technique the place the best concern may be given to all time rivals IBM. The benefits of this merger within the discipline of promoting may be seen within the case of shared branding, gross sales and repair. Even the distribution process is more likely to be enhanced with Compaq enjoying its half. Now, the corporate can look ahead to cross promoting, subsidization and in addition a decreased price.


The foremost benefit on this space is that within the location of uncooked materials. Even the processing type could be identical making the services synchronized with the concepts and in addition in making an honest operational technique. Because the philosophical and mechanical management would even be in widespread, the operational technique would now be to grow to be the highest most available in the market. On this respect, the 2 firms would now have co-production, design and in addition location of workers. So, the operational technique of HP would now be to make use of the method primarily based facility format and performance with the talked about shared values.


The technical technique of the corporate will also be designed in widespread now. There’s a drawback from the angle of the differentiation that HP had within the discipline of inkjet printers however the benefits are additionally plentiful. With a typical product and course of expertise, the technological technique of the merged firm would promote extremely economical functioning. This may be carried out by means of a typical analysis and growth and designing crew.

Shopping for

The shopping for technique of the corporate would additionally observe a typical mechanism. Right here, the uncooked supplies, equipment, and energy could be widespread therefore lowering the price as soon as once more. This may be carried out by means of a centralized mechanism with a lead purchaser holding widespread insurance policies in thoughts. Now Hp must assume with the same angle for each inkjet printers in addition to private computer systems. It is because the parameters for manufacturing would additionally run on equal grounds.


That is a very powerful a part of the methods that will be made after the merger. The businesses would have widespread shareholders for offering the requisite infrastructure. The capital supply, administration type, and laws would even be in widespread. So, the infrastructure methods must take this stuff under consideration. This may be carried out by having a typical accounting system. HP does have an choice to have a separate accounting system for the merchandise that it manufactures however that will solely arouse an inside competitors. So, the infrastructural advantages may be made by means of a typical accounting, authorized and human useful resource system. This may be sure that the funding relations of the corporate would enhance. Not one of the Compaq traders would hesitate in investing if HP follows a typical technique.

HP would now have to make sure one other undeniable fact that with this merger they’d have the ability to show rivals to the current goal and people of rivals like IBM as nicely. Even the operations and the output market must be above what exists at current. The corporate wants to make sure that the company technique that it makes use of is environment friendly sufficient to assist such a future. The diploma of diversification must be managed totally as nicely. It is because; the merchandise from the 2 firms have carried out exceptionally nicely previously. So, essentially the most optimum diploma of diversification is required underneath the context in order that the corporate is ready to meet the calls for of the shoppers. This has been challenged by the homeowners of HP however must be carried by the CEO Fiorina. (Bhattacharya, 2010)